All Acid Chlorides

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All Acid Chlorides 2410
— Aromatic Acid Chlorides 1522
— Aliphatic Acid Chlorides 888
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Carboxylic acid chlorides are organic compounds that have a carbonyl group bonded to a chlorine atom. They are also known as acyl chlorides or acid chlorides. Carboxylic acid chlorides are very reactive and can be used as reagents for the chemical synthesis of various carboxylic acid derivatives, such as esters, amides, anhydrides, and ketones.

One of the common methods for preparing carboxylic acid chlorides is by reacting carboxylic acids with thionyl chloride (SOCl2). This reaction converts the hydroxyl group of the carboxylic acid into a chlorosulfite intermediate, which is a better leaving group than water. The chloride ion that is generated during the reaction acts as a nucleophile and displaces the chlorosulfite group, forming the carboxylic acid chloride and sulfur dioxide gas.

Carboxylic acid chlorides can undergo various nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions with different nucleophiles, such as alcohols, amines, water, or organometallic reagents. These reactions produce different types of carboxylic acid derivatives depending on the nature of the nucleophile. For example, reacting carboxylic acid chlorides with alcohols gives esters; reacting them with amines gives amides; reacting them with water gives carboxylic acids; and reacting them with organometallic reagents gives ketones. These reactions are useful for synthesizing complex molecules from simple precursors.

Carboxylic acid chlorides are therefore versatile and powerful reagents for chemical synthesis of various organic compounds. However, they also have some drawbacks, such as being highly corrosive, unstable under basic conditions, and prone to side reactions such as elimination or polymerization. Therefore, they must be handled carefully and used under appropriate conditions.

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